iN8sWoRLd Theres no place like Thu, 27 Jan 2022 09:08:49 +0000 Thu, 27 Jan 2022 09:08:49 +0000 Pico Mining crypto on my Linux PC <p><strong>First</strong>, if you don't know what I'm talking about, <a href="">read this</a>. This post is not an in-depth discussion of what cryptocurrencies are, how they work, or why you might want to care.</p> <h3>If I had stuck with it then I'd be rich now</h3> <p>The first time I tried my hand at mining for cryptocurrency was back in 2011. I didn't know very much about it but I had access to some surplus hardware from work so I spent some time figuring out what I would need to do. Back then it was possible to mine "solo" and this is what I was doing, but in the short time I messed with it I never solved a single block and I got frustrated, thinking I was probably doing it wrong. Turned out of course that mining solo you could solve a block in a day or a million days, but quitting wasn't going to solve anything. Of course, in retrospect, I wish I had stuck with it a bit longer! To think its been so long there is actually a post on medium about <a href="">Mining History</a>. If I can find some details from my personal attempts at mining at that time I'll update this post.</p> <p>I knew even at that time that although the surplus server I was using had a fantastic CPU that folks had already turned to GPUs (video cards) and even FPGA (field-programmable gate array) technology for the superior parallel processing they offered over CPU. <a href="">ASIC</a> boards (Application-specific integrated circuit) came to dominate the world of mining since then but they hadn't yet arrived on the scene. I am pretty sure I was using <a href="">CGminer</a> by Con Kolivas probably on Ubuntu.</p> <p>Once I had gotten frustrated with solo mining I turned to joining a pool. Mining pools allow lots of users to contribute their efforts toward the common goal of solving the problem and increase the chance of success. The pool pays out a fraction to each contributor based on the number of "shares" they have contributed toward the effort. Back then the only pool I knew about was <a href="">slushpool</a>. There may have been some others but thats the one I remember. I still had the login info saved and was able to access my account but it was empty and I'm fairly sure I never managed to actually get any pool mining working back in the day. I had a mycelium wallet set up on my old android phone, but I know I never had any crypto in it.</p> <h3>Fast forward to today</h3> <p>Real life demands over the last couple months made many of my hobbies difficult or impossible. Since this left my music room empty and my <a href="">nice rig</a> off and idle I started to wonder if I could set it up to "mine crypto" while I was busy doing other things. I set a goal to acquire $1 in bitcoin soley through mining. This of course led to a bunch of reading on the topic. I quickly found that the difficulty these days is so high it makes mining bitcoin with a standard PC highly unprofitable; though many folks do mine alternative cryptocurrencies <a href="">with a GPU</a> and exchange these for bitcoin if desired.</p> <p>The second most popular crypto coin today is <a href="">Ethereum</a> which is arguably more than just a digital currency, but can actually be considered a programming platform. Ethereum is one of the cryptocurrencies which is GPU-friendly, though probably not for long now as they have <a href="">already announced</a> that they will be shifting away from PoW (proof of work aka "mining") to PoS (proof of stake aka "investing") with Ethereum 2.0. </p> <p>While it is still possible to do, Ethereum seems to be the coin to mine with my rig. At least <img align="right" src="" alt="2Cryptcalc" />according to <a href="">2cryptocalc</a>, which has an online calculator that lets you easily determine what the most profitable coin to mine would be based on your GPU. I have a <a href="">GTX1660 Ti</a>, and entering in a "1" into that GPU's location in the tool produces a list of cryptocurrencies and their estimated 24Hr profit if I used that card. The list shows ETH (Etherum) at the top for my card at $1.94 / 24Hr. If I had splurged on that 2080 back when I was building the rig that would be able to generate $3.55 / 24Hr! Of course, this is the value of ETH in US dollars at today's exchange rate and the value of ETH has been dropping of late so the profitability is going down.</p> <p>The next obvious question is how much would the electricity cost to run my rig for 24 hours a day while mining? I happened to have a <a href="">Kill A watt</a> meter I could use to measure this. With the machine on, monitor off, and actively mining, my machine was using about 150W. <img align="right" src="" alt="KillaWatt" /> Over a 24 hour period thats 3,600W or 3.6kW. Where I live electricity is fairly expensive at $0.11/kW which means it would cost about $0.40 /day in electricity to run. This would still mean a profit of $1.50 / day if you don't factor in wear and tear on your hardware. Given that I have not been able to use the machine much for anything else anyway lately, I decided it was worth the experiment.</p> <h3>Selecting a mining program</h3> <p>When I started out I hadn't yet done very much research and so I began at pretty much where I had left off in 2011. I struggled for a long time to compile cgminer and attempted to get that communicating before realizing it wasn't going to be efficient at all in my case. I searched for and read about lots of different mining softwares that supported running with a GPU and soon settled on <a href="">bminer</a>, a closed source application with a license issued by a company called "Chord Technologies". I assume the author may be Chinese or has many contacts there given that the site is available in English and Chinese. China has recently stamped down on crypto and mining. The only Chord Technologies I could find operates out of a residence in an upscale bedroom community of Fort Worth, TX. Other than those details, the author of bminer is a bit of a mystery which added to bminer not being open source would normally be more than enough for me to avoid it if my research didn't show that it apparently performs better than nearly every other miner software currently available. Releases of the software have been fairly constant since 2017, frequently supporting new alt-coins and offering new features.</p> <p>Bminer's Linux release is a pre-compiled binary which "just works" and comes with a bunch of shell scripts you can edit to log into and mine against several different mining pools by replacing the information with your own. If you decide to test bminer without changing anything, or if you just plain don't know what you're doing those scripts are all set up to accept your kind offer of work against the author's key :) I admit I gave the author some time on my rig, just a few cents to help pay those electric bills.</p> <h3>Choosing a mining pool</h3> <p><img align="right" src="" alt="2miners" />Since the author of bminer was actively promoting and using <a href="">f2pool</a> I decided to join that pool and start mining. I ran it for a time this way before I realized that the payout of this pool was at 0.1 ETH. With my single GPU rig I calculated that it would take 5,800 days at 24 hours a day to see a payout! It didn't take me long to find <a href=""></a> who seemed to be more friendly to beginners and have, since October this year, offered payouts for ETH mining at much smaller payout minimums in Nano or Bitcoin! I was confused by their advertising at first because I didn't notice that while a payout in Nano was indeed as low as 0.0005 ETH (something I could possibly do in a single day) <em>and</em> didn't incur any fees, payouts in Bitcoin (my goal, as you'll recall) was at 0.005 ETH and there was a small fee for the exchange. What's an order of magnitude between friends? Still, 2miners promised a faster payout and my goal was only a dollar in bitcoin, right? When I wanted to clarify their terms I used their support system (zendesk) to ask and got an answer almost immediately.</p> <h3>Getting a wallet</h3> <p>To mine, you need to mine TO an address. You can get an address through an exchange, but I personally didn't want to deal with an exchange and I didn't want anyone else to have access to my wallet. If you have your wallet "in the cloud" on an exchange I think its an increased risk because someone could potentially break into your account and steal it. Also, many of the exchanges require you to identify yourself with real world information to set up an account. Since these places aren't currently regulated (much if at all) I don't feel comfortable sharing any personal information with them. And I don't need to! I could use mycelium on android easily to create a wallet and address and I did set that up initially, but after some reading I decided to try using <a href="">Exodus</a> a highly rated wallet from J.P Richardson, a respected name in crypto based in Nebraska. Exodus is slick, if a bit slow. I set it up on my Linux PC but set it to sync to their app on my phone. Not using an exchange wallet means if I lose my password I'm out of luck, there is no way for Exodus to help me get back into it.</p> <h3>Started mining</h3> <p>Fired up the machine on Dec 5 around 9pm and mined over night. bminer does seemed to be churning away fine. Temperatures were nominal:</p> <pre><code>[INFO] [2021-12-06T06:47:14-05:00] [GPU 0] Speed: 25.17 MH/s Temp: 71C Fan: 61% Power: 104W 0.24 MH/J [INFO] [2021-12-06T06:47:14-05:00] Total 25.17 MH/s Accepted/Rejected/Stale/Invalid shares 61/0/0/0</code></pre> <p>I didn't need to set up an account on to get started. Without one, though, I had to search with my <a href="">wallet address</a> manually to access a status page. Feel free to send me some bitcoin to this address if you're feeling generous!</p> <p><img align="right" src="" alt="2miners_rate" />I watched that page like a hawk, checking in every day, and it did take a while. It wasn't until Dec 18 that I finally reached 0.005 ETH and was paid out at the next payout time 7am on Dec 19. I had shut the machine down shortly after reaching the payout point and 2miners paid me out with the small additional ETH I generated up to that point.</p> <p>It took some time for the transactions to flow from 2miners to the exchange they use and back, and then for them to pay out everyone who had contributed and for that payment to show up in my Exodus wallet, but it did!</p> <p><strong>Goal accomplished!</strong></p> <img class="img-responsive" src=""> Sun, 19 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0000 crypto bitcoin Upgrading an old Nexus 7 to android 10 <img align="right" src="" alt="Nexus7_LineageOS17.1" /> <p>A friend at work gifted me an old Nexus 7 (2013) which originally shipped with android 4.3, but had gotten official updates up to 6.0.1. I knew when he offered it that it was very likely I'd be able to get a more recent version on there since the official Google devices are very well supported and I was right! Installing android 9 was pretty easy by using LineageOS (LineageOS is what is left of Cyanogenmod). There are a bunch of <a href="">blog</a> <a href="">posts</a> <a href="">here</a> <a href="">referencing</a> <a href="">Cyanogenmod</a> over the years, and I had a lot of fun with these and other custom android roms over the years.</p> <p>The Nexus 7 (2013) needs to be repartitioned to install android 10 though which makes this upgrade a bit more difficult. As usual, <a href="">following the directions</a> closely is key. I connected the Nexus to a laptop running Ubuntu which I had never used for this before so I needed to install the android debugging tools, then check that I could see my tablet connected, then to check that I could log into it:</p> <pre><code>sudo apt-get install android-tools-adb android-tools-fastboot adb devices adb shell</code></pre> <p>Before I wiped it, I wanted to pull some Pictures off and make sure I had a copy of Solidexplorer an app I own and have used for years.</p> <pre><code>adb pull /storage/self/primary/Pictures/ ./</code></pre> <p>Then to make sure I can find solidexplorer:</p> <pre><code>adb shell pm list packages | grep solid package:pl.solidexplorer2</code></pre> <p>Then to get the full path for it:</p> <pre><code>adb shell pm path pl.solidexplorer2 package:/data/app/pl.solidexplorer2-EYPqI1TytGznevCQ1VgfKg==/base.apk package:/data/app/pl.solidexplorer2-EYPqI1TytGznevCQ1VgfKg==/split_config.arm64_v8a.apk</code></pre> <p>This returned two packages, base.apk and split_config.arm64_v8a.apk but all I need is base.apk. To download it:</p> <pre><code>adb pull /data/app/pl.solidexplorer2-EYPqI1TytGznevCQ1VgfKg==/base.apk /data/app/pl.solidexplorer2-EYPqI1TytGznevCQ1VgfKg==/base.apk: 1 file pulled. 24.0 MB/s (16632378 bytes in 0.660s)</code></pre> <p>At times I got ahead of myself and needed to kill the adb server and reconnect:</p> <pre><code>adb kill-server</code></pre> <p>I also wanted to dump a complete list of the apps on the tablet in case I forgot something:</p> <pre><code>adb shell pm list packages &gt; ./all_packages.txt </code></pre> <p>Then the fun began. Boot up in the bootloader, check that I can see it, and unlock the bootloader (mine was already unlocked from when I had installed 9)</p> <pre><code>adb reboot bootloader fastboot devices fastboot oem unlock</code></pre> <p>Then to boot the recovery image for android 10, enable adb in it and connect and create some images to pull off in case things go poorly. I am only assuming that these partition images would have been useful because I didn't need them and so, never tested that theory.</p> <pre><code>fastboot boot ./lineage-17.1-20210111-recovery-flox.img adb shell dd if=/dev/block/mmcblk0p2 of=/sdcard/modemst1.img dd if=/dev/block/mmcblk0p3 of=/sdcard/modemst2.img dd if=/dev/block/mmcblk0p4 of=/sdcard/persist.img adb pull /sdcard/modemst1.img adb pull /sdcard/modemst2.img adb pull /sdcard/persist.img</code></pre> <p>This is where things went off the rails because I didn't follow the instructions. After re-partitioning you have to format the system partition which I didn't and I ended up doing this step maybe 4 times before I realized what I was forgetting, did it, and it just worked. The re-partitioning is done by sideloading a package that basically issues all the parted commands so you don't have to which is nice. You do need to log in on adb shell and type modify to kick it off.</p> <pre><code>fastboot boot lineage-17.1-20210111-recovery-flox.img adb sideload ./ adb shell modify</code></pre> <p>Finally you can boot into recovery again and sideload the actual image for android 10!</p> <pre><code>fastboot flash recovery lineage-17.1-20210111-recovery-flox.img adb sideload</code></pre> <img align="right" src="" alt="Nexus7_LineageOS17.1_apps" /> <p>Then install solidexplorer and <a href="">F-droid</a> which I use instead of Google Play Store. I guess I should mention that the purpose of the tablet is to display sheet music primarily but also for some light reading and reference. This is not my primary device and so I don't need email or other Google Apps on it. I do install OSMand+ (Open Street Maps), VLC so I can access and play media off my home server, and of course muPDF so I can view PDFs.</p> <pre><code>adb install base.apk adb install F-Droid.apk</code></pre> <p>Most importantly I use Termux to install git and openssh so I can check out my lyrics and sheet music repo on the tablet. Then I can view all that in Solidexplorer which has viewers for most file types built in, as long as I remember to <a href="">set up Termux</a> correctly so I can check out the repo into the downloads folder which solidexplorer can access. The following command in Termux sets up the symlinks for that to work right:</p> <pre><code>termux-setup-storage</code></pre> <p>and installing the aforementioned linux apps in termux:</p> <pre><code>pkg install git pkg install openssh</code></pre> <p>So far its working well. Had to reboot after enabling auto-rotation to get that working (which worked fine in LineageOS 16.1 and I hope will work as well in LineageOS 17.1), but so far everything works as it did under 16. Someday I hope to get an e-ink tablet for this purpose (to carry all my music and lyrics to events and sessions) but until then, the battery life is still good enough for a few hours of jamming so I call it a win!</p> <img class="img-responsive" src=""> Sun, 17 Jan 2021 00:00:00 +0000 android rom Making music in 2020 <p>The biggest change since I last wrote about <a href="">making music videos</a> in 2018 is that I've largely gotten away from tracking tunes and creating finished videos and more into looping music live while streaming on twitch (see the link to my twitch channel at the bottom of any page here). I've also spent far less time learning and singing songs and more playing traditional tunes on the mandolin although I haven't been practicing violin as much. As I've changed what I'm doing, my studio setup has changed.</p> <p>The biggest change is that I re-arranged everything so that I can go in and power up everything and be mostly ready to go live without having to connect up cables. This was huge. In the past, mostly because of the size of the mixer and the Fostex there was a lot of set up and break down to make room to do other things in between sessions. Next, the goal is to be able to play music and use the looper so I can build up tracks of various instruments in real time so I need to be able to get my analog instruments into the PC. All of that software stuff I will leave for another post, for now I'd like to focus on the cable connections. Live streaming was taking a lot of time in set up, and I wanted to reduce as much of that time as I could. Also, I didn't have a consistently good audio or video quality and I was hoping a simpler setup would make it easier to get good results.</p> <p><strong> Audio Interface </strong></p> <img align="right" src="" alt="Shure X2U" /> <p>Starting at the end of the audio chain, in order to livestream you need some way to get whatever sound you're making into the PC. Its simple enough to just buy a USB mic of some kind, but I already have a bunch of decent quality mics that I wanted to use. Typically you use an audio interface of some kind to take the output of good mics and connect them up with USB to a PC. For some years I had been using a <a href="">Shure X2U</a> XLR to USB interface to take the output of my mixer into the PC but this only allowed for one channel.</p> <img align="right" src="" alt="Behringer UMC 404 HD" /> <p>I wondered if I should get an audio interface with a built in mixer to replace my old analog Behringer mixer I was running through the X2U. I love the big old mixer with its sliders and knobs and little LEDs, but it takes up a lot of space and I was rarely using more than 3 inputs on it. I decided to see if I could get away with a basic audio interface, one with no mixer but just gain knobs. After some emails with a buddy with recording tech experience I settled on the 4 input <a href="">Behringer UMC 404 HD</a>. I didn't really understand how I could do everything I wanted to do at first so I ended up leaving my analog mixer set up with it for a month or so, but one weekend I decided to bite the bullet and remove the mixer completely and figure out something that could work. After using the set up for about 6 months now, its clear I would probably be better served by a small 2 or 4 channel USB mixer. However, if I decide to start doing some recording on the PC this will be very handy.</p> <p>As it turns out, I am STILL really only sending one channel to the PC, but the the UMC404HD's inserts at the back allow me to send the signal out to an effects loop which I couldn't do with the X2U.</p> <p><strong> What I'm Doing</strong></p> <p><img align="right" src="" alt="Boss RC-3 Looper" />My stream began as a way to have a weekly practice session for some friends who could play along on their side and maybe interact with them in the chat a bit for requests or feedback. I have music up on screen and I loop various instruments playing the tune on my <a href="">Boss RC-3 looper</a>. I think I might be at a point where I would like to have a more capable looper, perhaps with two pedals but for now this serves the purpose perfectly well. I need to be able to add multiple sources to the loop both analog and digital:</p> <ul> <li>Mandolin</li> <li>Violin</li> <li>Cello (rarely)</li> <li>Guitar</li> <li>Voice</li> <li>Synthesizer</li> <li>Electric Guitar</li> </ul> <p><strong> Other Components </strong></p> <p><img align="right" src="" alt="Boss RV-6 Reverb" />Another addition is a bit of a compromise, which is the <a href="">Boss RV-6 Reverb</a> pedal. While its certainly not the best, it does a decent job and I haven't messed with it enough yet to really give a good review other than its certainly more capable than the built in reverb of the Marshall Amp, and its great to be able to add some depth to the mando parts which otherwise sound a bit thin.</p> <p>Most of the instruments I would be able to mic easily with my <a href="">Behringer B-1 condensor mic</a>, but the synthesizer and the electric guitar don't make any noise on their own and need to be plugged into something to make sound. I figured the easiest thing to do would be to bring my acoustic Marshall amp back into the studio set up. One goal was having everything set up in a way that would work for a live show the same way. Ditching the mixer was key because its so big, and I need to bring my amp to play live anyway.</p> <p>As I'll describe below I play the acoustic instuments, routed PC input, and any synth stuff into amp input 2 and any electric guitar on the line input 1 and everything can be added to the loop. I can add the Marshall's chorus effect or the Boss Reverb as desired.</p> <p><strong>Current Setup</strong></p> <p><a href=""></p> <img class="img-responsive" src="" alt="Studio setup in 2020" /> <p></a></p> <p>I took these pictures back in June after the "new" set up was close to finalized. Click the image for a larger version. At first I thought I would be plugging everything directly into the audio interface, but I soon came to realize that I couldn't do to do what I wanted to do that way, or at least I couldn't figure out how to do so. I wanted to be able to have whatever was being picked up by the mic to go through the looper and the reverb pedal, but also be able to add synth or electric guitar to the loop as well. Finally, I wanted to be able to feed in an audio source (usually from VLC on the PC) and add that to the loop mix as well if I wanted to.</p> <p>One thing I already knew about the Marshall amp was that only input 1 could be routed out the amp's effects loop jacks at the rear, and that input only accepted a single line input. The 2nd input on the amp has three inputs: line, XLR, and RCA, but can't be routed out the effects loop at the rear.</p> <p>The audio interface has four inputs but I could not find a way to route those out to the reverb and looper and back in easily. I tried using three inputs, routing out the main mix to the pedals and back in on the fourth input but I forget now why that didn't work. I think part of it is that each of the inputs is either left or right channel and its designed that way on purpose so that the PC has a nice clean mono signal into whatever DAW (digital audio workstation) software you're going to be using. Thing is, at least at this time I'm not using anything like that so this feature is useless for now.</p> <p>I found the 1/4" jacks on the back of the Behringer interface that correspond to the inputs on the front and which look like standard guitar mono inputs are actually what are called "Inserts". Inserts are two channels (but not "stereo") where the left channel is output and the right is input (I might have that backwards) so you can use special cables (or an adapter) to route the output of the corresponding input on the front out to an effects loop and back in to that insert again, but the insert works for only its numbered input on the front and obviously you can only have one thing plugged into each input. I got around this by plugging the mic, the RCA audio from the PC and the line in from the Synth into the 2nd input of the Marshall and routing the DI output of the amp to an input on the audio interface (I chose #2 for some reason), then I used Insert #2 on the back to run down to the effects and back.</p> <p>If I want to add electric guitar, I plug into the input 1 on the amp and that is routed out to the effects loop at the back of the amp to an analog distortion pedal if desired.</p> Sun, 25 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 music streaming The internet and email <p>This is a subject that I like to research from time to time. Occassionally, as I run across a resource I may update this list. If you wish to contribute information, please include source and email nate at this domain.</p> <p>Electronic mail was first "invented" in 1965 by Tom Van Vleck, and implemented over ARPANET (the predecessor of the internet) in 1971 by Ray Tomlinson, who incidentally was the one who brought us the @ sign in email at that time.</p> <p>RFC 561 in 1973 defined the email headers so different systems could pass messages more efficiently and by sometime that year fully 73% of all traffic on the ARPANET was electronic mail messages. By 1975 Steve Walker at ARPA actually created a message group (MsgGrp) whose sole purpose was to discuss standards in email headers because there were by that time, so many different email clients that it was getting difficult to manage including many commercial email packages by 1976. RFC 733 in 1977 was the result of this collaboration between many people.</p> <ul> <li><a href=""></a></li> <li><a href=""></a></li> </ul> <h1>Timeline</h1> <ul> <li> <p>1948 - JCR Licklider tenured professor at MIT</p> </li> <li> <p>1956 - he left for BBN as VP and convinced them to buy a Royal-McBee digital computer for $30k</p> </li> <li> <p>1960 - Ken Olsen of DEC contracted for BBN to test the new PDP-1 and compare to Royal-McBee</p> </li> <li> <p>1960 - Paul Baran of RAND defined how to use message blocks to protect comm network under nuclear attack</p> </li> <li> <p>1961 - Leonard Kleinrock at MIT - report on analyzing data flow networks, measuring data loss etc</p> </li> <li> <p>1962 - DOD's ARPA hired Licklider for 2 years as IPTO manager who spread time-sharing theories into practice to tie government purchased mainframes around the county together, brings McCarthy and Minksi to BBN from MIT and Ed Fredkin pushes time sharing on PDP-1</p> </li> <li> <p>1962 - AUTODIN start of development of military messaging system by Philo-Ford</p> </li> <li> <p>1962 - BBN demos first time sharing PDP-1</p> <ul> <li><a href=""></a></li> </ul> </li> <li> <p>1965 - Donald Davies at National Phsical Laboratory UK proposes packet switching which would be adopted into ARPANET</p> </li> <li> <p>1965 - First computer to computer email on a single system- Tom Van Vleck with Noel Morris at MIT on the CTSS system</p> <ul> <li><a href=""></a></li> </ul> </li> <li> <p>1965, Spring - instant messaging to output buffer of another user's terminal called SAVED</p> </li> <li> <p>1965, Aug - mail command added to CTSS in Bulletin 88</p> <ul> <li><a href=""></a></li> </ul> </li> <li> <p>1966 - AUTODIN military messaging deployed by Philco-Ford (4 years in development)</p> </li> <li> <p>1967 - Lawrence Roberts of Lincoln Laboratory now running IPTO at ARPA defines basic goals and starts to lay the groundwork to hire a contractor to begin building ARPANET? Discovers Barans untested message block ideas at Air Force</p> <ul> <li><a href=""></a></li> </ul> </li> <li> <p>1967 - SDC's Q32 had a messaging system despite its creator's paper from 1963s claim to the contrary and was demoed to Tom Van Vlek around this time when he visited using DIAL</p> </li> <li> <p>1968 - Roberts released RFP with packet switching and network data analysis (ala Kleinrock) for networking labs and universities together</p> </li> <li> <p>1968, Dec - Ted Kennedy's office awards to BBN (Frank Heart) which would link 4 nodes: UCLA, Stanford Research Institute in Menlo Park, UC at Santa Barbara, U of Utah in 8 months by the end of 1969. Willy Crowther writes software for packet switching network. IMP (interface message processor) spec developed</p> </li> <li> <p>1969, summer - mail command in multics as direct reimplentation of CTSS by Tom Van Vleck</p> </li> <li> <p>1969 - Official inclusion of inter-user messaging feature (.SAVED) in CTSS release at MIT by Bob Fenichel</p> <ul> <li><a href=""></a></li> </ul> </li> <li> <p>1969 - Vinton Cerf captain of crew to install at UCLA, October at Stanford 350 miles away. The first test.</p> </li> <li> <p>1969 - ARPANET created as 4 nodes on west coast</p> </li> <li> <p>1970 - BBN is connected to ARPANET as 5th node and sole east coast member</p> </li> <li> <p>1971 - First network mail - Ray Tomlinson at BBN on TENEX while working on SNDMSG used CPYNET and created the @ sign</p> <ul> <li><a href=""></a></li> <li><a href=""></a></li> </ul> </li> <li> <p>1971 - MIT's CTSS system had 1000+ users</p> </li> <li> <p>1971 - an anti-war screed sent to all users of CTSS is possibly first SPAM using Mail command</p> </li> <li> <p>1971 - ARPANET has 19 institutions connected</p> </li> <li> <p>1972 - most machines on ARPANET were running TENEX so Ray Tomlinson's SNDMSG and READMAIL programs as well as CPYNET meant Abhay Bhushan's work on file transfer could also work so Mail and MLFL brought email to ARPANET</p> <ul> <li><a href=""></a></li> </ul> </li> <li> <p>1973, March - Xerox Alta, an OS with a GUI released</p> </li> <li> <p>1973 - RFC 561 to standardize Mail headers (FROM, DATE, SUBJECT, at HOST, etc)</p> <ul> <li><a href=""></a></li> </ul> </li> <li> <p>1973 - a study at ARPA reveals three quarters of all traffic on ARPANET was email Because there was so much mail, Roberts writes mail manager software RD</p> <ul> <li><a href=""></a></li> <li><a href=""></a></li> </ul> </li> <li> <p>1974 - Vint Cerf and Bob Kahn release TCP IEEE specification</p> </li> <li> <p>1975 - John Vittal's MSG is a variant of RD mail manager software Steve Walker at ARPA proposes a message group to start work on standardizing mail headers because there are so many different mail manager programs being developed -&gt; first mailing list MsgGrp</p> <ul> <li><a href=""></a></li> </ul> </li> <li> <p>1976 - Will Crowther writes Adventure</p> </li> <li> <p>1976 - commercial email packages begin to appear</p> <ul> <li><a href=""></a></li> </ul> </li> <li> <p>1977 - RFC 733 standard for Arpanet messages <a href=""></a></p> </li> <li> <p>1978, May 3 - infamous DEC SPAM (though not called that until 15 years later) by a DEC salesman, Gary Thuerk announcing the DEC-20. Richard Stallman defended the sender!</p> <ul> <li><a href=""></a></li> <li><a href=""></a></li> </ul> </li> <li> <p>1978-1979: EMAIL developed by Shiva Ayyadurai, 14 at University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey under direction of Dr Leslie Michelson (formerly of BNL). While the development of the software is not in dispute, Ayyadurai makes additional controversial claims regarding the importance of his contribution.</p> <ul> <li><a href=""></a></li> <li><a href=""></a></li> </ul> </li> <li> <p>1979 - about 2000 Xerox Altos in use at labs and universities. In December Steve Jobs tours Xerox and sees WYSIWYG mouse controlled interface and soon after incorporates into Lisa, then Macintosh</p> <ul> <li><a href=""></a></li> </ul> </li> <li> <p>1979 - Kevin McKenzie a MsgGrp member proposes emoticons :)</p> </li> <li> <p>1981 - ARPANET had 213 nodes</p> </li> <li> <p>1981 - Xerox GUI Laurel email application manual:</p> <ul> <li><a href="!1.pdf">!1.pdf</a></li> </ul> </li> <li> <p>1982 - Shiva Ayyadurai submits for a copyright on his EMAIL</p> </li> <li> <p>1983 - ARPANET had 562 nodes, government separates off MILNET</p> </li> <li> <p>1989 - private providers far outstripped government and ARPANET decommissioned</p> </li> <li> <p>1999 - Al Gore tells CNN's Wolf Blitzer: "During my service in the U.S. Congress, I took the initiative in creating the Internet." Despite years of misquoting and deriding him in media, Al Gore did spearhead a national policy to transfer defense-funded computer research to the public and to promote universal access.</p> <ul> <li><a href=""></a></li> </ul> </li> </ul> Sat, 18 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0000 web email Mid range AMD streaming on Linux <img align="right" width="320px" src="" alt="Finished_Build" /> <p>For a complete parts list with up to date pricing for this build visit: <a href=""><a href=""></a></a></p> <p>The last PC I built from purchased components was in 1994 (a 486 DX266 :) so needless to say I was a bit intimidated to even attempt this, but this site was a great help. As an aside I do want to mention that the whole concept of this site is genius and I wish I had thought of it!</p> <p>It might help to understand where I am coming from since if you have different goals this build might not be for you. I've been a linux user since the 90s. Nothing against Windows - I do run a Windows network for work after all, just a personal preference. I am not a huge gamer, but that might just be because I've been using seriously under-powered machines for so long I couldn't really ever be one. I like to record music (not EDM but the old school, analog, play-an-instrument variety) and over the last year I got into streaming using OBS. I have suffered enough with my little Intel NUC with a i5-4250u and integrated graphics. <img align="right" src="" alt="Components" /> I couldn't really go full screen hdmi without occassional lag, and I couldn't play really any games other than GO (I highly recommend Online-Go at <a href=""></a>). This ends today!</p> <p>I got all the parts (except the DVD player) from NewEgg which means I didn't get the lowest prices on everything, but I wanted to deal with one vendor and I've had the best luck with them over the years.</p> <img align="right" src="" alt="Ryzen_5" /> <p>I wanted the AMD Ryzen 7 2700X but it was out of stock everywhere online and I have limited time to get this done so I decided to get the 2600X which was readily available. I figure I can upgrade someday if needed, and theres going to be a 4 to 5 times increase in speed from what I've been using anyway.</p> <p>I made a bunch of mistakes but all were order of operations issues. By this I mean it becomes impossible to get your hand in certain places to connect up cables if you install things out of order. The best way (for me) was to pre-assemble the board and CPU, pre-connect the power ATX/CPU on the motherboard outside of the case and then mounted the board in the case with those attached. Remember to get the connector panel in place in the case as you install the motherboard you can't do it after the fact. All the cables for power and LEDs and fans and such should get connected before the graphics card because you can't really get your hand in there with the graphics card in.</p> <p>Because I'm old and need glasses to see up close this build took a lot longer for me than it should have if you can see like a normal human.</p> <img align="right" src="" alt="Fractal_Case" /> <p>I like the case, its decently built and came with everything I needed to assemble this machine. I don't have it listed because it came from another machine but I'm also using a 2TB spinny disk for long term storage and the Focus case came with nice 3.5" disk mount sliders which were easy to use. The only odd thing (I thought) was that the only way I could get it to fit was if I mounted the drive with connections inward which makes it cleaner when you look at it through the glass, but just seemed counter-intuitive to me as I'm used to the way Dell has them outward. The front just snaps off so you can access the 5.25" bays. Both sides come off which makes routing cables a breeze. I found the screws that hold on the sides a bit fiddly and I'm worried if I open it a lot I'll eventually strip them since they aren't as substantial as in the business Dells I'm used to. That said, they have a backing so you can't lose them. I find the space adequate and easy to work in even though its an ATX "mini" form factor.</p> <img align="right" src="" alt="MSI_mb" /> <p>Since my only experience with motherboard manuals is from back in the early 90s where they would ship you a tome, the tiny little booklet that came with the MSI felt a little shy on detail, but it had everything I needed to know except I was a little confused about how the front system fans connect and work. They seem to be working correctly and there really was only one way to connect them but it still confused me a bit.</p> <img align="right" src="" alt="Linux" /> <p>Ubuntu Linux 18.04 LTS loaded without complaint. Using the proprietary nVidia driver 435.21. Almost completely moved in (rsync from the old machine brought over all data and settings, just had to reinstall the applications). After opening it up to take the drive out that I was copying stuff over from I realized I had forgotten to connect one of the fans. This should have been obvious since they light up and I had only seen one do so. The lower one is plugged into the System Fan while I have the upper one plugged into the CPU fan port.</p> <p>I added an ASUS DVD writer since these pictures were taken because I do rip CDs and DVDs on occasion and have a lot of archive DVDs I may need to access someday.</p> <p>I get 1100+ fps regularly in Minecraft, and everything I've played in Steam has run without a hitch. OBS streaming and creating videos in Openshot, as well as compiling stuff is all amazingly quick compared to my old rig.</p> Sun, 19 Jan 2020 00:00:00 +0000 computer tech